22: THE  LIGHT

The electron on the right hand side is rotating around a circle whose radius is only a quarter of a wavelength.

In the presence of a proton, interferences produce undulations and powerful transverse pulsations.

This is how electrons emit polarized light. Photons do not exist. The light is solely made out of waves.

   

LET  THERE  BE LIGHT

Electrons are made of spherical standing waves and they constantly emit spherical waves all around. Augustin Fresnel thought that those waves should vibrate transversally in order to justify polarization. But it turns out that they are regular longitudinal traveling waves. Although they are responsible for all forces, they do not produce any light  most of the time because electrons must move to and fro or in a circular motion in order to produce undulations as show above. Then the light frequency is that of the undulations: it is a secondary frequency.

Because matter is made of waves, we can now shed new light on this matter, if you'll pardon the pun. Clearly, Augustin Fresnel was wrong: polarization does not depend on transverse vibrations. It comes from the fact that there are two types of electrons and that they are capable of oscillating like a pendulum in a straight line or in a circular trajectory. Then they radiate waves whose phases undulate transversally the way the above animated diagram suggests.

 This was also Mrs. Caroline H. Thompson's opinion:

http://freespace.virgin.net/ch.thompson1/

The diagrams below show that the electron together with the proton inside an atom always produce ellipsoid and hyperboloid patterns whatever their spin.

Since electrons behave as light receptors, and because their spin is opposite, they oscillate in an opposite direction. This is a result of the radiation pressure, whose effect depends on the spin. For example +1/2 electrons may all be pushed on the black areas shown on the right, while -1/2 electrons will prefer the white ones. Finally, all those receiving electrons oscillate like a pendulum or in a circular motion on the same lower frequency.

   

The wave addition produces concentric ellipsoids and hyperboloids where phases alternate.

   

Those hyperboloids are especially visible on this animation:

This is a simplification: actually, there are billions of superimposed hyperboloids very close together.

Electrons constantly radiate such waves, but most often this does not produce any light.

   

 All hyperboloid zones are remaining stable if electrons do not move.

   

Electrons must oscillate in a straight line (polarized light) or in a circular trajectory (no polarization) in order to produce light. This causes those hyperboloid zones to undulate like this:

   

The primary frequency is constant but the light secondary frequency is that of undulations.

The undulation length is much longer; it was shortened above in order to make them visible. 

Electrons can also move in a circular trajectory on the cross section plane.

Then one obtains polarization rotation.

   

Transparency.

Inside air, water, or glass, the light waves constantly disturb electrons which emit some new light whose phase is opposite. The original waves simply go through any object but their action is cancelled. The light seems to go through any transparent material, but one must realize that the exiting light is new.

A substance is transparent because it has a perfectly homogeneous structure. For instance, a crystal is made of regularly spaced atoms. All electrons inside it will react to any incident light wave and produce a new wave according to Huygens' Principle.

Because there are two sorts of electrons whose spin (phase) is opposite, one half is slightly pushed by the incident wave while the other half is rather attracted. All of them react like a genuine wave medium. The electronic wave is transmitted all the way towards the other surface, where surface electrons finally emit some new light. So there is no true light inside air, water or glass, albeit the electromagnetic effects are still present.

The diagram below shows that only a 1/4 wavelength displacement along the axis nevertheless produces a stunning and powerful set of pulses:

   

Pulses from two electrons oscillating along the axis.

From one electron to another, there is a slight delay which explains refraction.

Color dispersion can be explained by more complex, multi-level crystalline structures.

   

Most often, the visible light is emitted by electrons inside an atom in accordance with their atomic layer. We already know that they are placed on several well-defined atomic shells. However, they may not emit some light only when they move from one shell to another. This can also occur, but their position inside a given shell can be disturbed without expelling them from it.

The important point is that electrons are locked inside an area where they can slightly oscillate.

The diagram below shows that the quarks inside protons must radiate many interleaved hyperboloid zones, where the energy is weaker. Those zones can capture an electron.

   

  Hyperboloids, or nearly-cylindrical zones where electrons can rotate.

Such a rotation produces visible light, which is not polarized most of the time.

   

Moreover, the proton radiates several parallel hyperboloid zones. Their addition produces true hyperbolas on the junction points. Finally, it becomes obvious that the constant and periodic spectral lines, especially the Balmer series, are linked to those junction points.

   

Hyperbolic interferences between two gluonic beams, from two orthogonal points of view.

Any of those hyperbolas can capture one electron in accordance with constant periodic distances.

   

This is the well known Fresnel-Fraunhofer diffraction pattern, which is especially present in the laser beam.

The proton is not a laser, but similar zero-energy zones should be present on privileged axes.

Each of those "black holes" are capable of capturing one electron, but the energy level differs.

The electron ability to oscillate inside one of those zones depends on the zone position.

Finally, the light frequency is linked to the "black hole" energy level.

   

The link with the periodic atomic shells and the Balmer series becomes obvious:

   

 The hydrogen spectral lines (the Balmer series).

   

Thus, and although difficult to believe at first :

1. The light waves do not vibrate transversely.

2. The light is made of composite waves pulsated on a secondary, lower frequency.

3. Photons do not exist.

I have been studying light all my life and I never encountered a single situation where photons were evident. The light clearly behaves like waves do. The quantum effects are the result of the electron behavior while emitting or receiving light. This occurs because the threshold for expelling them out of their normal position in one of the "black holes" shown above is constant.

Electrons do not rotate around the atomic nucleus. This hypothesis was emitted by Ernest Rutherford, who experimented with fast positive helium nucleus hitting thin material such as gold foil. It should be emphasized that this experiment did not indicate that electrons are really rotating this way. I am very surprised that all the scientific world immediately accepted this as a true fact. As a matter of fact, such a rotation was never detected experimentally. It is even unlikely to be possible because Gilbert Newton Lewis (1875-1946), a famous American chemist, showed that each element can be seen as a cube with a given number of electrons on its vertices, up to 8. This hypothesis is much more acceptable because it is based on experiments. 

In addition, the Compton effect can be explained by light crossing gluonic fields, which are plane standing waves created between two electrons. Other effects may also suggest particles, but waves can always explain them too. Finally, there is no evidence of photons, albeit the presence of a quantum of energy according to Plank's constant is still obvious.

Let's be clear: photons do not exist.

   


Gabriel LaFreniere
Last update December 3, 2009