Photon Particule

While this review will not attempt to consider all the details, which can be reviewed in the cited references,  it will attempt to summarise some of the additional detail provided in the paper entitled: Cordus Optics: Part 2.1 Frequency, especially in terms of the issue of frequency within the particule model, which is not really understood. As aspects of the photon particule model have been previously outlined, only the simplified model, as shown right, will be used.

Note: The Cordus model considers the idea that there is a physical part of a photon that moves and has a frequency [f] of oscillation. In this model, the energy associated with this frequency, presumably conforming to [E=hf], alternates between the two reactive ends across the span of the ‘cordus’, as defined by the fibril. As such, frequency is not just an intrinsic variable, but a physical effect within the photon and is one of the fundamental building-blocks of the Cordus Conjecture, albeit a conceptual one. However, at this stage, the source of the energy responsible for this process is not understood.

In the context of the Cordus model, it is assumed that the word ‘cordus’ is intended to reflect the cord-like structure within the particule model. As such, a photon is no longer a point-particle without structure, but rather defined by two reactive ends connected by a fibril. In the diagram right, the initial idea of a ‘discrete force’ being emitted along ‘flux-lines’ now appears to be described in terms of hyperfine fibrils carrying lines of electrostatic force. The previous outline description suggested that the cordus was ‘energised’ at a specific frequency, which from an external perspective suggests the nature of light might be associated with some form of electrostatic field that oscillates in strength at a given frequency. However, the Cordus model assumes that the reactive ends, internal to the photon particule structure, create this external effect. Up until this point, it has only been highlighted that the status of the reactive ends oscillates between an energised and dormant state, although this description is now extended.

Note: As described, the electromagnetic field of light is only an external perception of the lines of an electrostatic force being emitted out along the hyff structure. This electrostatic field is then quantified in terms the direction and strength of the force that might be conceptually measured on a test-charge placed near the centre of the photon. As such, this mechanism is assumed to form the basis of the interaction between the reactive ends of a photon and charged matter, e.g. an electron.

As outlined, the reactive ends of the photon model must be in opposite frequency states, which may be qualified in terms of four field states, i.e. expanding, maximum, contracting or dormant. In this respect, the actual frequency would appear to align to the rate of change of these field states, where the cycle is assumed to represent a smooth transition in the strength of the field being output along the hyff. It might also be assumed that the strength of this field must still be a function of distance, e.g. inverse square law. However, the overall behaviour of the interaction with other particules depends on the frequency states, as defined above, but which might be simplified to just the expanding or contracting state:

  • In the expanding state, the reactive end is repulsed with a strength proportional to distance.

  • In the contracting state, the reactive end is attracted with a strength proportional to distance.

However, while this outline might provide some description of the frequency within the particule model, it is unclear that it explains it causal nature. As such, this outline will highlight some of the general statements made about frequency in connection to more classical wave and quantum models, which the Cordus Conjecture seeks to provide a better causal explanation as paraphrased below.

Frequency is an important concept in wave theory, optics and quantum mechanics. However, these theories struggle to explain frequency in physical terms. From the wave theory perspective, the frequency of light is the oscillation of the electric and magnetic fields; although this is not entirely satisfactory as it does not explain the origins of those fields, nor why the fields reverse polarity. However, it is generalised that light, i.e. all electromagnetic waves, are nothing more than a self-propagating field disturbance, such that the question ‘what is frequency?’ remains. In contrast, quantum theory assumes that the fundamental reality is predicated on point particles, which have a wave duality subject to a probabilistic wave-function. See discussion ‘Nature of Light’ for further perspective of the wave-particle duality debate.

Based on the quantum model, properties like frequency, spin and momentum are not necessarily tied to any physical geometry or causal mechanism. However, the explanation provided by the Cordus Conjecture only appears to suggest that the photon-particule model, i.e. the reactive ends, are ‘energised’ at some given frequency without necessarily explaining how the frequency is sourced as an energy mechanism. Despite these concerns, the conclusion of the Cordus paper being cited might be paraphrased as follows:

The Cordus model offers a physically coherent interpretation for frequency, such that parts of the photon-particule model really move with a frequency. In this model, the energy alternates between the reactive ends across the span, where the photon has internal variables that create the output observed as frequency. So, while this is a type of ‘hidden-variable’ solution, frequency is not just an intrinsic variable, but a physical effect within the photon.

While recognising that the Cordus model is only conjecture at this stage, it appears to be a description of effect rather than a physical explanation of the cause of the frequency driving the mechanisms being described. So, while the Cordus model appears to reject the point-particle model of quantum mechanics, which it might be argued has been superseded in terms of quantum field theory (QFT),  the nature of the reactive ends appear analogous to point-particles interconnected by the somewhat ambiguous physical description of a fibril.